Learn to use correctly the prepositions “zu”, “aus” and “vun”

What is a preposition?

A preposition is a word that shows the relationship of a noun or a pronoun to some other word in the sentence. Most prepositions are placed before the noun/pronoun they modify.  Some examples of prepositions in Luxembourgish are:

zu – aus – vun

Now these 3 prepositions are – unlike the preposition an we have seen in a previous lesson  – not two-way prepositions but prepositions which ALWAYS require the dative case.

When do we use the preposition ZU

The preposition zu  can mean to or in or for in English. But we mainly use this preposition as follows:

  • zu + Stad (town, city)

When you are  in a town (situation, location) you always use zu.

Beispiller (Examples)

  • Ech schaffen zu Diddeleng zënter engem Joer. I work in Dudelange since one year.
  • Et gëtt zu Mamer e gudden italienesche Restaurant. In Mamer there is a good italian restaurant.

Exception:

Ech wunnen zu Lëtzebuerg. (country)
Ech wunnen an der Stad. (Luxembourg city)

There are of course other exceptions: mainly with the different areas in Luxembourg city.

When do we use the preposition AUS

The preposition aus  can mean “from”, “to come from” or “out of” in English.

  • aus + Land (country)

Beispiller (Examples)

  • Ech kommen aus England.  I come from England.
  • De Fliger kënnt aus Amerika. The plane is coming from America.

aus  – meaning out of in English

Beispiller (Examples)

  • Ech klammen aus dem Bus. I get out of the bus.
  • Mäi Mann hëlt all Dag de Courrier aus der Bréifkëscht. My husband takes everyday the post out of the letter box.
  • Huel d’Forschetten aus dem Tirang, w.e.g.! Take the forks out of the drawer, please!

When do we use the preposition VUN

The preposition vun  has many meanings in English such as “by”,“ from” or “of”. You often read and hear vu as vun is ending with n so it follows the N-rule.

  • vun + Stad oder Plaz (city or  place / location)

Beispiller (Examples)

  • Ech komme vu London.  I come from London.
  • De Fliger kënnt vun Dublin. The plane is coming from Dublin.
  • De Bus fiert vun der Gare op de Kierchbierg. The bus drives from the station to the Kierchbierg.

Exception:

Ech komme vu Lëtzebuerg aus der Stad. I come from Luxembourg (country) from Luxembourg city).

vun – meaning of in English

Beispiller (Examples)

  • Ech si responsable vun dësem Service. I am responsible of this department.
  • Ech wunnen am Haus vu menger Boma zënter si gestuerwen ass. I live in the house of my grandma since she died.
  • Meng Schwëster huet e Salaire vu 4200€. My sister has a salary of 4200€.
  • De Vol vun aacht Stonnen war ustrengend. The 8-hour flight was exhausting.

For other meanings of zu, aus and vun I recommend you to explore the Luxembourgish online dictionary:  www.lod.lu

 


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